In Turkey, a study showed that 39.4 percent of the 496 women coming for contraceptive advice in Ankara Maternity Hospital had had induced abortions at some time in their past. More than half had had more than one abortion (35). The report states that some 12,000 maternal deaths occur annually in Turkey because of induced abortion. This seems to be a high estimate, however.
In the United Arab Republic, a sample survey of a rural area in Alexandria governorate found an abortion ratio of 77 per 1,000 live births. Of 3,998 interviewed, 7.1 percent admitted having had an abortion at some time in their lives (36).
In Kenya, Eraj (37) reported that Kenya statistics for 1964 indicate that the number of deaths from abortion was almost half that attributed to malaria. He urges the medical profession to recognize unplanned pregnancy as a social disease which should be dealt with professionally in much the same manner as other social diseases.
In Latin American countries other than Chile, high abortion incidence also exists, as shown in Table 5.
TABLE 5 Induced Abortion Rates in Seven Latin American Cities
Mexico San Rio de Buenos
City Bogota Jose Caracas Panama Janeiro Aires
Estimated abortions per 1,000 live births 184 130 191 197 148 167 333
Reported abortions per 1,000 woman-years of exposure 37 26 33 34 24 21 21
Low FERTILITY DETERMINANTS AND ABORTION
The widespread occurrence of induced abortion in a developing society is symptomatic of the intense motivation to limit family size which is precipitated by certain low fertility determinants. In this discussion three low fertility determinants are singled out for study: the increasing economic liabilities of an additional child; the emancipation of women and their increased use in the labor force; urbanization and modernization. The basic framework used here to investigate possible linkages among abortion, the motivation toed an opinion, about 72 percent favored legalized abortion with little difference between urban and rural areas (33).